TECHNOLOGIES OF THE CARTOGRAPHICAL METHOD OF RESEARCH
Baikal Institute of Nature Management SB RAS
Ulan-Ude, Russia, email@example.com
Abstract. The article considers the peculiarities of the cartographical method of research in the process «creation-use of geoinformation» under the present-day conditions of informatization of the territorial activity. It identifies and describes the technologies of geoinformation mapping and modeling as independent ways of realization of the cartographical method of research
The present-day period of society development is characterized with the intensive dynamics of geographic knowledge and progress of technologic activity. The devised appliances, measurement technologies and assessments of geographic covering provide the formalization of geoproperties of different origin and facilitate the integration of Earth sciences on the basis of micro-processor and space technology. Science is actively using information approach to the investigation of objects and natural phenomena, emphasizing the information aspects of their formation and development.
Under the current condition of informatization of territorial activity greater attention is given to the cartographical method of research [Салищев, 1955] as the universal general-scientific technology of registration and modeling of objects and processes of the geographic reality. Thanks to the regulation norms and contemporary technical support, the realization of the method enables to arrange the diversity of properties of the spatial-temporary reality by means of their formalization in the united geoinformation field on the basis of the systems of cartographic projections. In this respect the cartographic method performs the function of information moderator of geographic covering, since it allows to restrict the diversity of geoproperties by means of creation and use of geoinformation models. The specific nature of the cartographic method is defined by its information character — it permits to investigate not the environment itself but information concerning its objects and spatial relations. Correspondingly, the object of research of the method is geo-information and the subject of the research is human activity aimed at the creation and use of geoinformation.
The phenomenon of geoinformation is based on physical discontinuity and quality-quantity discretion of the geographic covering, each object of which has its peculiar properties. Geoproperties are material features of geographic objects, define their affinity and difference in space-time interaction and characterize the space-time structure of the geographic covering: location on the earth surface, quality essence of the object and its discrete state in the development process. Registration of geo-properties is realized through sense organs and measurement devices in the elaborated systems of calculation. The result of registration is geodata — parameter-oriented properties of objectsin the form, accessible for storage, processing and transmission. Physical-chemical heterogeneity and spherical structure of the geographic covering stipulate the existence of two types of geodata — substantional and spatial. The totality of geodata is used as the metric basis for the creation of the information model of the assessed object or territory.
During the setting of territorial task the necessary geodata are included in the process «creation-use of geo-information» by means of the cartographical method of research. As a result of cartographic form of description we perform the integration of substantional and spatial geodata into the topologically-substantiated and mathematically-determined image-digital model of the geographic object. Thus, there forms geoinformation as an empiric fact of the established relation of the material essence of the object and its location on the Earth. In the technological aspect geo-information is the territorial totality of homogenous geodata, important for the resolution of the spatial task. The fixation of geoinformation is provided by means of the language of the map [Лютый, 1988] in the form of analogous and electronic cartographic models, suitable for different spheres of territorial activity and instruction.
At the stage of creation of geoinformation the cartographical method leans on practical operations and technologies of registration of geoproperties (observation, measurement, description). As result of topographic survey and mapping of geoinformation as image-sign models is realized. Here it provides the primary systematization of factual data on the basis of the methods of cartographic portrayal. Storage and retranslation of geoinformation in the society as material images and performed procedures are provided by norms, state standards and special methods. Thus, in the process of creation of geoinformation the cartographical method resolves the task of describing space-time structure of the geographic reality and is aimed at the reproduction, fixation and distribution of geoinformation for the needs of economy, population, education as spatial documents.
At the stage of using geoinformation the method is based on the intensive mental work, theoretical methods and mathematical apparatus o the specialized program support, allowing to formalize the analysis and synthesis of the formation and development of spatial objects and processes. The most efficient way of using geoinformation is theoretical-cartographic modeling of the ideals and material image-sign modes with the purpose of identification of the significant properties and relations, general laws in the geographic covering [Берлянт, 1988]. In the process of using geo-information the cartographic method resolves the task of explaining space-time structure of the geographic reality and is aimed at the learning of the fundamental ties and laws, inherent to the described object and phenomena.
The analysis of the stages of the process «creation-use of geo-informatiom» and the applied approaches to the realization of the cartographic method permits to draw a conclusion of the existence of two technologies, stipulated by the logic sequence, structural-functional organization in the society, totality of the applied means and methods and the form of intermediate and final results (pic. 1).
Pic. 1 Technologies of the cartographical method of research.
The separate treatment of the technologies of the cartographical method under the present-day conditions is motivated from the practical point of view. In the process of «creation-use of maps» the paper map serves as the boundary — it marks the end of creation of geoinformation and the beginning of its use. At that at different stages different subjects are involved, which induce the contortion and loss of geoinformation Today the main method of creating the model of the geographic reality is geoinformation technology, which combines the means of registration, storage and processing of information. The deployment of this technology would facilitate informatization of the cartographical method and the exclusion of the paper map out of the modeling process since it is the possible source of mistakes during the interpretation of primary geodata and extortion of the mathematical basis. Geoinformation modeling is realized on the basis of primary geodata by one subject (group), performing the input of geodata, creation of geoinformation, its modeling and mapping of the results.
The peculiarity of information technology is the use of mathematic algorithms, imitating the mental processes, that is why geoinformation is not only a product for it, but also a material to be used. In the technological aspect differentiation of technologies is motivated by the place and significance of geoinformation in the process «creation-use of geoinformation». During geoinformation mapping the material is geodata and the product is geo-information, materialized as a map — graphic image-sign model. During modeling the material is geoinformation and the product is inductive generalizations and deductive syllogisms, allowing to explain and predict the development of spatial objects and processes (hidden geoinformation). It is facilitated by the possibility of manipulation, comparison and analysis of the source model in the information milieu with the help of scale, coordinate and semiotic transformations in combination with the ideal models. The result of modeling is not always a map. It can be a hypothesis, description, database, set of recommendations etc.
Depending on the specific features of the spatial task realization of the cartographic method may be held both on the basis of one technology and by means f their combination. Depending on the external conditions the important of the technology for particular regions vary: for instance, during the assessment of the consequences of natural calamity the decisive significance belongs to the technology of mapping and in case of predicting damage — technology of modeling.
In the theoretical aspect division of technologies is reasoned from the methodological point of view, because it facilitates the closer contact of the communicative and cognitive concepts of cartographical theory on the basis of the cartographical method of investigating geoinformation. The technology of mapping provides the territorial activity of society with geoinformation in the form of topographic maps and spatial documents. As means of fixation and storage of territorial data these material models facilitate the realization of the communicative social-historical function of the method. The technology of modeling provides for scientific-research activity aimed at the investigation of laws of the geographic covering and the construction of the system of knowledge. As a means of learning the reality virtual and ideal models assist in the realization of the cognitive social-historical function of the cartographic method.
The list of used literature:
1. Берлянт А.М. Картографический метод исследования. — М.: Изд-во МГУ, 1988. — 252 с.
2. Лютый А.А. Язык карты: сущность, система, функции. — М., 1988. — 290 с.
3. Салищев К.А. О картографическом методе исследования // Вестник МГУ, серия физ. -мат. наук. — 1955. — № 10. — с. 161 — 170.